Even in a small area, a rare summer resident refuses to plant a plum tree. Plum is a very popular stone fruit cultivator.. In many gardens of Russia you can find one of its most interesting varieties - Stanley, with a description of which you will meet in this article.
Plum Stanley - in detailPlum Hungarian
A group of Hungarian plums, to which Stanley belongs (he is Stanley, he is Stanley), combines varieties with elongated dark-purple fruits, a clear abdominal seam and dense sugary pulp. Hungarians amenable to drying, and it is from them that the best prunes are made..
History of the variety
At the beginning of the 20th century, Professor at the Department of Horticulture at Cornell University Richard Wellington experimented with crossing the famous French plum Pryuno d'Agen and the American Grand Duke. The result of selection was the Stanley variety created in 1926. From the delicate “mother” of the French, he inherited the excellent taste and bright aroma of the fruit. From the “father” of the American - resistance to the freezing of flower buds.French plum Pryuno d'Agent
Today, Stanley plum is planted with vast areas in temperate zones around the world. Almost all European and American prunes are made from it. In Russia, Stanley has been cultivated since the 1980s. Despite the fact that the variety is recommended for the southern regions, it can be found far to the north - in the Central Chernozem region, the Moscow region and even in Siberia. However, where frosts occur in September, it is better not to risk it. Stanley - late plum plum, may not have time to ripen before cold weather.
|External features||The tree grows up to 3 meters in height. Crown habitus sparse, rounded. The stem is straight, with a medium degree of desquamation, dark gray.|
The shoots are red-purple, slightly ocholchёnnye, without pubescence. The length of internodes is about 3.5 cm.
Leaf stalks have anthocyanin pigmentation. On the lower side of the leaf plate - on a pair of yellowish aromatic glands. Stipules lanceolate, light green.
|Bloom||Stenley plum blossoms approximately in mid-April.|
The generative buds are located on the sprouts of annual growth and bouquets of twigs. Each bud forms 1-2 flowers.
The flowers are white, up to 3 cm in diameter. The petals are slightly closed, not corrugated, with a wavy edge. Pedicle length - up to 2 cm.
|Fruiting||This variety begins to bear fruit with 4 years of age. Removable maturity fruits reach to the beginning of September.|
Fruit - odnosostochkovaya drupe, very large. The average weight is 45 grams. Covering color is dark purple, the main - green. The shape of the fetus is obovoid (top round, elongated neck), with well-defined abdominal suture, uneven. Peel - without pubescence and strokes, with brown subcutaneous points and wax coating, poorly separated from the pulp.
The flesh is yellow, with a strong aroma, dense. The taste is sweet with light sourness (tasting score 4.8 points). Stone separates well.
|Soil requirements||Grade Stenley loves fertile soil. The need for regular dressings is very high. Otherwise, the fruits become smaller.|
|Resilience||Stanley is declared as a high-resistant grade. Able to tolerate frosts down to -34⁰С.|
Drought resistance is average. With a long absence of irrigation drops fruit.
Highly resistant to polystigmosis (red spot) and sharq. It is affected by gray rot and aphids.
|Yield||Fruit steadily. Gives up to 60 kg of fruits from one tree.|
|Purpose of the fruit||Use universal: fresh, for drying, for preparing juices, compotes, jams, for pickling and freezing.|
|The need for pollinators||Partially samoplodny grade, tying the fruit and without pollinators. However, the best yields are obtained if there are plums of the varieties Chachakskaya, Empress, President or Blufrey.|
|Transportability and curing||At normal temperatures, Stanley plum fruits are stored without loss of quality for up to 15 days. In cold weather (+ 1⁰С) - up to 25 days.|
Fruit transportability is very good.
Pros and cons of plum stenley
Summing up all the characteristics of this variety, it is possible to draw conclusions about its advantages and disadvantages.
Of the advantages:
- excellent fruit flavor and versatility;
- frost resistance;
- high and stable yield;
- good indicators of lightness and transportability;
- resistance to the ball and red spot.
Of the disadvantages:
- instability to gray rot;
- demanding of soil fertility;
- low drought tolerance;
- late maturity
Grade Stenley - from sapling to harvest
To grow Stanley in his plot, you will need general knowledge of the rules of plum cultivation and a little patience. When choosing a seedling you need to take into account the peculiarities of your climate.. If you plan to grow Stanley in a warm region, you can buy own-rooted seedlings. If the climate is cold, it is better to take a stock.
Place for landing Stanley need to choose the warmest and sunny. Well, if it is protected from drafts. The tree will feel great on the south side of the gentle slope or at least behind a low fence, if it is not too obscured.For plum by stenley the most favorable warm and sunny place
Stanley is a moisture-loving variety, but does not tolerate stagnant water at all. Therefore, the lowlands, swampy areas and places with a high standing of the subterranean waters of this drain will not work.
It should be remembered that this American guest likes to "eat". It is necessary to take to her a fairly fertile piece of land of at least 9 square meters. The best options are weakly alkaline and neutral sandstone or loam.. The acidic soil will need to be deoxidized with dolomite flour.
Stanley's plum is best planted in early spring before the start of sap flow. Practice calls for that during the autumn planting this variety gets worse.Preparing a landing pit for plums
The landing pit should be prepared in the fall, before the onset of frost. In this case, the soil will have time to settle down. The size of the pit and the method of laying depend on the fertility of the soil.
|Fertile soil||Not enough fertile soil|
|Pit depth||60 cm||100 cm|
|The diameter of the pit||80 cm||100 cm|
|Bookmark Method||Topsoil is removed and deposited separately.|
The bottom of the landing pit is digging.
The removed upper layer is mixed with humus in a ratio of 1: 1 and poured a mound to the bottom of the pit.
|Turf is removed, crushed and stacked separately.|
Mix 2 buckets of well-rotted manure, a liter ash can and shredded turf.
The mixture is placed on the bottom of the pit.
Up to half the depth, fertile soil from another place is filled with a mound.
Planting seedling Stanley has no technological features. It is carried out by the general rules:
- Slightly away from the top of the hill a support stake is driven in at the bottom of the landing pit. The height must be calculated so that the top of the support is slightly lower than the first lateral shoots of the seedling.
- Landing pit well shed water.
- Sapling put next to the support and tie. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that the root neck is above the ground.
- Roots spread over the hill and gradually sprinkle with good earth, tightly trampling.
- Again check the location of the root collar. Ideally, it will be three fingers above the ground.
- Back down about half a meter from the clamp and chopper or flat cutter circle the groove. Pour about three buckets of water into it.
- To mumble stem circle.
Immediately after planting, the sapling must be “cut”. The plum produces large annual increments, so the sooner the crown formation begins, the better. In the annual seedlings, you must pinch the apical bud in order to grow lateral shoots. They will form the future skeletal branches of the tree. In a two-year-old sapling, the central conductor and the side branches should be shortened by one third.
In the first season after disembarking, Stanley requires a lot of attention.. Water the seedling should be regularly. Several times over the summer, you can spill a solution of "Heteroauxin" at the rate of 2 tablets per 10-liter bucket of water. Weed pristvolny circle is not worth it, so as not to disturb the injured roots. It is better to mow the grass.
In the second year it's time to start feeding. Their scheme will depend on the phase of plant life.
|From the 2nd year after disembarkation before entering into fruiting||Fruit tree|
|Spring||In early May - with a solution of urea (2 spoons per 10 liters of water)||Before flowering, a solution of urea (2 tablespoons) and potassium sulfate (2 tablespoons) in 10 liters of water.|
|Summer||In early June - a solution of nitrophoska (2 spoons per 10 liters of water)||During the filling of berries - a solution of urea (2 spoons) and nitrophoska (3 spoons) per 10 liters of water.|
|Autumn||The end of August - a solution of potassium sulfate (2 spoons) and superphosphate (2 spoons) per 10 liters of water.||After harvesting the fruits, a solution of potassium sulfate (2 spoons) and superphosphate (3 spoons) per 10 liters of water.|
In addition to mineral supplements, Stenley plum can be offered organics. Every year at the beginning of summer, a bucket of manure humus and a glass of dolomite flour should be brought into the soil of the stem of the trunk circle..Every year the tree should be fertilized with humus
For the prevention of disease and the invasion of pests necessarily need to do sanitary pruning. Once in seven years - rejuvenating.
Measures to combat diseases and pests
Moniliosis (gray rot) is a fungus that spoils the fruits of the plum. It looks at the initial stage, like a brown spot on the skin. This formation quickly grows and is covered with a gray "down", carrying the spores of the fungus.
Plum varieties Stanley can be greatly affected by moniliasis. In order to prevent misfortune, it is necessary to spray a tree twice with the Abiga-Pik fungicide (before flowering and during fruit loading). If the tree is still sick, you will have to cut off the infected branches and burn them. The healthy parts are treated with the drug.
Plum Stanley likes pollinated aphids.. Colonies of these small greenish-brown insects severely damage young shoots and plum leaves. For prevention it is good to plant a tree with marigolds. They attract ladybirds - natural enemies of aphids. In case of severe damage to the plant, you can use "Intavir". However, it should be remembered: insecticides kill not only pests, but also insects useful for the garden.
- Aphids on plum leaves
- Monilioz on plum fruits
Plum Stanley certainly deserves the attention of Russian gardeners. If you master the art of copulation, you can experience this variety, even without wasting time on growing seedlings. There is no doubt - the efforts will justify themselves.